## Problem

Consider a 2x12 rectangle with dotted lines marking the 24 squares. How many sets R are there such that R is connected, R is obtained by cutting on the dotted lines, and R contains at least one square at the left end and at least one square at the right end?

“Connected” means that one can get from any square in R to any other by a path of adjacent squares, adjacency meaning that at least one edge is shared. Symmetry is ignored: if R is congruent to R' but they involve different squares, they count as different. There is in fact a formula for the count for the $2 \times n$ case (and some extensions to $m \times n$). Here is an example of a set R. For a $2 \times 2$ rectangle there are seven such sets, shown below. Source: S. Durham and T. Richmond, Connected subsets of an nx2 rectangle, College Math. J., 51, (Jan. 2020), 32-42.

## Solution

Let $A(n)$ be the number of sets as in the problem for 2xn grid. Let $T(n)$ be the number of sets as in the problem, but that have in the rightmost column a square on the top but not the bottom. Note that this is the same, by symmetry, if we count sets that have a square on the bottom but not the top in the last column. Let $B(n)$ be the number of sets as in the problem that have the rightmost column contain both squares. Note that $B(n) = A(n-1)$.

We have $A(n) = B(n) + 2 L(n)$, so

$$\begin{equation} \label{eq1} 2 L(n) = A(n) - B(n) = A(n) - A(n - 1) \end{equation}$$

Also $L(n) = L(n-1) + B(n - 1) = L(n-1) + A(n - 2)$, so

$$\begin{equation} \label{eq2} 2 L(n) = 2 L(n - 1) + 2 A(n - 2) \end{equation}$$

Now \ref{eq1} and \ref{eq2} give,

\begin{align} A(n) - A(n - 1) &=& 2 L(n - 1) + 2 A(n - 2) \nonumber\\ &=& A(n - 1) - A(n - 2) + 2 A(n - 2) \nonumber\\ \implies A(n) &=& 2 A(n - 1) + A(n - 2) \label{eq3} \end{align}

Solving the recurrence relation \ref{eq3} using the initial conditions $A(1) = 3$ and $A(2) = 7$ gives us the sequence $3, 7, 17, 41,\dots$ for $A(n)$.

What is interesting about this sequence: $3, 7, 17, 41, 99, 239, 577,…$ is that it is identical with the numerators of the convergents of the continued fraction of $\sqrt{2}$:

$1/1 , 3/2 , 7/5, 17/12, 41/29, 99/70, 239/169, 577/408, \dots, 47321/33461$.

Here is the Python code for calculating $A(n)$ and generating the connected paths.

def num_connected_paths(n):
if n == 1:
return 3
if n == 2:
return 7
cnt = 2
t_n_2, t_n_1 = 3, 7
while(cnt != n):
t_n_2, t_n_1 = t_n_1, 2*t_n_1 + t_n_2
cnt += 1
return t_n_1

print(num_connected_paths(5))

def connected_paths(n):
if n == 1:
return [[(1,0)],[(0,1)],[(1,1)]]
ext_paths = []
for path in connected_paths(n-1):
s1, s2 = path[-1]
ext_paths.append(path + [(1,1)])
if (s1,s2) == (1,1):
ext_paths.append(path + [(1,0)])
ext_paths.append(path + [(0,1)])
else:
ext_paths.append(path + [(s1,s2)])
return ext_paths

print(len(connected_paths(5)))